vdB 158 is a reflection nebula visible in the constellation Andromeda. Its position is identified about two degrees north of λ Andromedae, a star of magnitude 3.81.
It is the illuminated part of a long cloud of dark gas and dust that extends in a northeast-southwest direction, known as GAL 110-13, whose elongated shape would be the result of the collision between two molecular clouds, from which a compression was derived which caused star formation phenomena inside it.

The cloud is illuminated by two blue-white dwarfs of spectral class B9V, cataloged as HD 222046 and HD 222086, to which is added a third class B8V, HD 222142, which is mainly responsible for the light received by the cloud; these three stars show a common proper motion, indicating that they are a group of stars physically related to each other and that they have a common origin. Furthermore, their distance of about 400 parsecs (1435 light years), places them in the same region as Lacerta OB1, an OB association whose brightest star is 10 Lacertae.
These star formation phenomena could also have been favored by the explosion of a supernova generated by one of the most massive members of the Lac OB1 association, as well as by the action of the stellar wind of the most massive components of the system, which also contributed to modeling the GAL 110-13 cloud; the event of the supernova explosion would also be confirmed by the presence of some fugitive stars observed in the vicinity of the association



PN K1-20

A Planetary nebula k1 20 discovered in 1962.


 Technical Data

Bortle Scale / SQM-L Bortle 5  / 20.10 - 20.32
Period August 2023
Primary Scope  Takahashi CCA250/1250  FSQ106
Sensor IMX455 / IMX571
Mount AP 1100 GTO CP4
Total Exposure Time 6 H
Composition LRGB 
Location Val Imagna (Bergamo) Italy


 © Efrem Frigeni Astrophoto

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